Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Advances in Understanding and Treatment

This session will delve into the latest research and clinical advancements in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). As an autoimmune condition characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells, T1DM requires a deep understanding of its pathogenesis and innovative approaches for effective treatment. Examination of the autoimmune processes leading to beta-cell destruction and the role of genetic and environmental factors in T1DM development. The insulin molecule itself has got moulded into different analogues by minor changes in its structure to ensure well controlled delivery, stable half-lives and lesser side effects. Insulin delivery systems have also consistently undergone advances from subcutaneous injections to continuous infusion to trials of inhalational delivery. Continuous glucose monitoring systems are also becoming more accurate and user friendly. Smartphones have also made their entry into therapy of diabetes by integrating blood glucose levels and food intake with calculated adequate insulin required. Artificial pancreas has enabled to a certain extent to close the loop between blood glucose level and insulin delivery with devices armed with meal and exercise announcements, dual hormone delivery and pramlintide infusion. Islet, pancreas-kidney and stem cells transplants are also being attempted though complete success is still a far way off. Incorporating insulin gene and secretary apparatus is another ambitious leap to achieve insulin independence though the search for the ideal vector and target cell .

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