Type 2 Diabetes: From Pathophysiology to Personalized Management

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, leading to hyperglycemia. This condition is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The development of T2DM involves a complex interplay between insulin resistance in peripheral tissues (such as muscle, liver, and fat) and beta-cell dysfunction in the pancreas. Initially, the body compensates for insulin resistance by increasing insulin production. However, over time, the beta cells cannot sustain this increased demand, resulting in insufficient insulin levels and chronic hyperglycemia. Factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet significantly contribute to the onset and progression of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. The management of T2DM has evolved from a one-size-fits-all approach to a more personalized strategy that considers the individual’s unique characteristics, including genetic background, comorbidities, lifestyle, and treatment preferences. Tailoring nutritional plans to reduce carbohydrate intake, promote weight loss, and improve blood glucose control. Encouraging regular physical activity to enhance insulin sensitivity and overall metabolic health.

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